Like any battery, the power generated from the battery in your car is caused by the chemical reaction between the liquid electrolyte and the lead plates. These chemicals create electricity, which is sent to different parts of your car. However, what happens can be affected by external environmental factors. Your battery works a little better when it’s a little warmer because the extra heat reduces the amount of electricity needed to turn on the car’s accessories.
On the flip side, overcooling reduces the overall performance of your battery, as it requires a larger, more stable charge to use everything. This is why your engine struggles to turn over when it’s cold – the battery can’t hold enough juice to run the starter.
If the car, including the battery, is left outside in the cold for a long time, the internal components will deteriorate at a faster rate. Depending on the battery’s age and wear, this can lead to complete failure.